Five of the observation methods you need to be able to evaluate are:

  1. Participant
  2. Non-participant
  3. Covert
  4. Overt
  5. Naturalistic

Here are their definitions:

Participant Observation: when the observer (i.e. the researcher) is taking part in the situation being studied.

Non-participant Observation: when the observer (i.e. the researcher) is isolated from the situation being studied.

Naturalistic Observation: when the observation happens in a natural environment.

Overt Observation: when the participants are aware that they are being studied.

Covert Observation: when the participants are not aware that they are being studied.