What is a case study?

A case study gathers data on a particular individual or group using a variety of research methods (such as experiments, observations and interviews).

Why are they used at the biological level of analysis?

Case studies are often used at the biological level of analysis as they can be used to provide insight on the functions of the brain. They were particularly useful before the invention of modern brain scanning machines. Subjects such as HM, Tan, Phineas Gage and Joe  provided important information regarding specific areas of the brain and their functions. This was done by collecting data and making correlations between their observable behaviours and the areas of their brain that were damaged. These correlations enabled psychologists to make assumptions regarding localization of brain function, which have been supported by findings from studies using brain imaging technology.