(From the IB Subject Outline)

Analyse Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure.

Apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue.

Compare Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

Compare and contrast Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

Contrast Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations,referring to both (all) of them throughout.

Define Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity.

Describe Give a detailed account.

Discuss Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

Distinguish Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items.

Evaluate Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations.

Examine Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.

Explain Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.

Outline Give a brief account or summary.

State Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.

To what extent Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument.

 

 

Addiction A persistent dependence on a behaviour or substance.

Altruism Altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor.

Behaviour The activity of an organism including body movements, physiological and cognitive processes.

Covert observation In covert observation the observed group may or may not be aware of the presence of the researcher but they are not made aware that their behaviour is being observed.

Empirical A term used in relation to studies in which data has been gathered, recorded and analysed.

Etiology The cause of a disease or abnormal condition.

Inductive analysis Treatment of qualitative data in which theory and hypotheses are derived from the data rather than established before the data is gathered.

Informed consent Informed consent is obtained only where participants are fully aware of the nature and aims of the study in which they are participating.

Narrative interview Narrative interviews are used to obtain the stories people employ to interpret their lives and the world around them. It is the ways that people organize and make connections between events that are of interest to the narrative interviewer.

Overt observation In overt observation the observed group is aware of the presence of the researcher and that their behaviour is being observed.

Postmodern transcription A method of transcribing recorded interviews including the words, volume, pitch, speed, pauses, facial expressions, gestures and other non-verbal communication.

Reflexive Reflexivity involves the researcher documenting his or her beliefs, attitudes, values, theoretical position and reactions to the object of study and assessing the likely impact of these on the collection and analysis of data.

Research A term embracing theories and empirical studies within psychology.

Traditional transcription A method of transcribing recorded interviews including the words only.